I offer courses in Mindfulness for stress reduction, Mindfulness based CBT and Stress management courses This can be on a one to one or in groups.

INTRODUCTION to mindfulness

Since its introduction to the mainstream western medicine and society in the

late 70’s (Kabat-Zinn, 1990), mindfulness has received considerable scholarly


Over the last decade, scientific research on mindfulness has intensified, approaching the concept from both a practical and a theoretical angle. For instance, different mindfulness training programs have been developed and tested using a wide range of target populations. Training programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR: Kabat-Zinn, 1982), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT: Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002), and mindfulness-based eating awareness training (Kristeller, Bear, & Quillian-Wolever, 2006) have been used successfully to treat emotional and behavioral disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, major depression, chronic pain, or eating disorders (cf. Bishop et al., 2004).

A growing body of empirical research has found evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) (a) to reduce symptoms in clinical samples (for meta-analytic reviews, see Bohlmeijer, Prenger, Taal, & Cuijpers, 2010) and (b) to promote psychological well-being in non-clinical samples (Collard, Avny, & Boniwell, 2008). Besides its practical application, different studies have attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms of mindfulness, aiming to understand the construct in terms of processes like self-regulation, impulsivity, executive functioning, and memory (see for instance Fetterman, Robinson, Ode & Gordon, 2010).


Mindfulness is defined as “the awareness that emerges through paying attention

on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment” (Kabat-Zinn, 2003 p. 145). In other words, mindfulness involves directing attention to the experience in the present moment and a non-evaluative observation of that experience (Bishop et al., 2004).


Research has consistently shown that mindfulness is an important predictor of well-being.

For instance, the trait of mindfulness has been associated with higher levels of life satisfaction, more positive affect, less negative affect, greater life satisfaction, and sense of autonomy and competence (Brown & Ryan, 2003).

Higher levels of mindfulness have also been found to be associated with various positive

psychological outcomes, such as lower levels of neuroticism, depression, and anxiety as well as higher levels of self-esteem, vitality, and authenticity (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Lakey, Kernis, Heppner, & Lance, 2008).



Researchers have convincingly argued that mindfulness is a natural human capacity


The untrained laypersons can experience (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Dane, 2011; Glomb

et al., 2011). Natural variations in mindfulness are likely due to variations in genetic predisposition and environmental influences. However, mindfulness can also be trained.

Research has revealed that meditation practice enhances mindfulness and thereby promotes psychological health in clinical and non-clinical samples (for meta-analyses, see Chiesa & Serretti, 2009; Grossman et al., 2004).

However, mindfulness is not a “rarified state open only to those undergoing . . . training”

(Brown, Ryan, Loverich, Biegel, & West, 2011, p. 1042; also see Brown & Ryan, 2004).

The goal of mindfulness interventions is to teach participants to become aware of body sensations, thoughts, and emotions and to relate to them with an open, non-judgmental attitude (Shapiro, Astin, Bishop, & Cordova, 2005). Such an open state of mind can be cultivated by repeated practice. It is important to note that mindfulness is related to but not equal to meditation.

Although mindfulness is often predominantly associated with meditation, the range of practical mindfulness exercises vastly extends beyond formal meditational

practice. In other words, “sitting on a cushion” is merely one way of cultivating “an openhearted, moment-to-moment, non-judgmental awareness” (Kabat-Zinn, 2005, p. 24).

Integrating mindfulness into daily life routines and working habits is an important consideration, especially when under time pressure, deadlines, and tight schedules.

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